Saxon-Bohemian Culture Day
DRESDEN / PRAGUE.
On March 24, Young Nationalists, along with activists of the Workers’ Party for Social Justice, the Czech Dělnická strana sociální spravedlnosti (DSSS), organized once more the Saxon-Bohemian Culture Day. In addition to members of the organizing JN Dresden, representatives of other bases in Saxony participated in the action, as well as some interested people who were able to get an idea of the diversity of the work of JN.
After the excursion to the city of Aussig in April last year and the subsequent return visit of Czech activists in the Saxon capital of Dresden, the first cultural trip in 2018 led to the small village Tyssa (now Tisá) in the Sudetenland, about five kilometers from Peterswald (today Petrovice) located at the border crossing Bahratal in Bohemian Switzerland.
Bohemian Switzerland was declared a national park in the Czech Republic in 2000. The main objective is to protect the unique sandstone formations and bound biotopes. Massive rock towers, gates, walls, ravines and labyrinths were created by the erosion of marine sediments, which were lifted to the surface over time by alpine folds. Perhaps the most famous rock formation in the park is the Prebischtor. With a width of 26.5 meters and a height of 16 meters the largest natural rock gate in Europe, the Prebischtor is a symbol of the national park and has the status of a national natural monument.
After Teutons and Celts settled around 500 for the first time Slavic tribes in what is now Tyssa area. From this time comes the name of the place, which means “yew-tree” in Slavic. The village itself goes back to the fortress Schönstein and a connected village, built by the Wartenberger, a southern German noble family. The fortress was to serve the protection of the salt road, which led from Halle an der Saale over Dresden and Aussig to Prague. During the Hussite Wars in 1429, the fortress was burned down.
During the Thirty Years’ War in 1631, a Croatian imperial force arrived in Schönstein, destroying the entire estate. During the later invasion of Swedish troops, these two villages burned down. According to the census after the Thirty Years War Tyssa and Schönstein had a total of 90 inhabitants and 17 houses.
The village of Tyssa lived for a long time in the shadow of the Schönstein. With the disappearance of the forests and due to the low yields from the high stony fields, new employment opportunities were sought. After 1750 Tyssa began producing pewter spoons, later adding doorknobs, belt buckles, horseshoes, bells, saddles and harnesses. In 1770 the production of the first pewter buttons was introduced. This was the birth of the button industry in Tyssa. The first button production and metal foundry were built by the brothers Winkler in 1783. Many more followed.
In this time also falls the romance, in which, among other things, hiking became a popular sport. For example in the Tyssa walls, a large rock area, which turns the place Tyssa a mighty steep wall. In ancient times, humans invaded this difficult-to-access wilderness, but mostly just to hide or hunt. Everything started in neighboring Saxony, where the first peaks had been climbed at the end of the 19th century. On Bohemian territory it was Carl Beck, who in 1888 in the Herrnskretschen area conquered a high peak, which now bears his name. In the high area of Tyssa the first climbers came through the Bielatal via Eiland (today Ostrov) or Raitza (today Rájec). The first athletically ascended summit was the mummy on 23.8.1907. A tower, which is located approximately in the middle of the area. But also inhabitants of Tyssa climbed the summits of their homeland rocks. It came in 1933 to the fatal crash of 22-year-old Otto Hiebsch from the Januskopf. He is buried in the cemetery of Tyssa.
On 22 September 1938, similar to other areas of the border area with mainly German population, also in Tyssa it came to clashes between the Czechoslovak security forces and the members of the Sudeten German Party. The areas of Tyssa, Raitza and Eiland were defended by the group of about 20 members of the National Defense Guard (SOS), consisting of the members of the Czechoslovak Gendarmerie, the police and the financial guard. On September 22, 1938, about 300 members of the Sudeten German party opposed Tyssa. Some of them were party members from Tyssa and the surrounding communities. The largest part of the attackers, however, were members of the Sudeten German Free Corps, a recently in Germany founded formation. While Tyssa was occupied during the day, a successful counter-attack of the Czechoslovak SOS groups came in the evening, which received further support from the Czechoslovak army from Tetschen in the morning hours. As the last Czechoslovak border patrol, SOS Group No. 16 guarded its section until October 2, 1938.
The Tyssa community has never experienced such significant changes in its history as those that occurred after the Second World War in the first post-war months. In Tyssa and Raitza lived until the outbreak of the Second World War about 2500 inhabitants, of which less than one percent was Czech nationality. Immediately after the end of the war, the displacement began, causing unacceptable theft, looting and violence. In the spring and summer of 1945, the so-called Revolutionary Guards operated in the Sudetenland. The chronicle reads: “How did the expulsion take place? It depends entirely on the character and quality of the person who practiced it … Today, in the night hours, numerous Revolutionary Guards arrived in Tyssa. They visited previously selected houses and properties, which were still inhabited by Germans, quickly woke their inhabitants and informed them that they should go immediately, whereby they did not respect the smallest human right and they drove away only with small backpacks in the direction of Peterswald.”
Another part of the expulsion took place in Tyssa in April 1946. From Königswald station there were a total of three transports with the remaining Germans. The last transport ended dramatically. At the steep valleys to Königswald it came to the accident of the truck, which drove the Germans from Tyssa and Raitza to the station. 5 Germans were killed and many others were injured. Overall, according to the official documents of Tyssa and Raitza 2347 citizens of German nationality were expelled. People from Eastern Bohemia, but also many Slovaks and Ruthenians as well as members of the Svoboda army came to the resettlement.
Today’s Tyssa is located in the protected landscape area Elbe Sandstone Mountains about 20 kilometers from the district town of Aussig. The municipality is located in the Czech part of Saxon Switzerland, also known as Bohemian Switzerland. The administrative district of Tyssa still include the districts Eiland, Raitza and the settlement Antonsthal (now Antonínov). Thus, Tyssa has more than 800 inhabitants. Attractions include the Church of St. Anna built in 1785-1788 in the center of town and the Peace Cross from 1626 on the road from Königswald to Tyssa, where a traveling medicinal herb seller was killed by a violent act. But also in 1926 at the eastern entrance of the cliffs built tourist building, the brick pond or the monument of the 81 fallen from the First World War, which was unveiled on September 8, 1929 and at which with a second short speech in German and Czech the first Saxon-Bohemian Cultural Day this year ends.